Matching Properties of Deep Sub-Micron MOS Transistors examines this interesting phenomenon. Microscopic fluctuations cause stochastic parameter fluctuations that affect the accuracy of the MOSFET. For analog circuits this determines the trade-off between speed, power, accuracy and yield. Furthermore, due to the down-scaling of device dimensions, transistor mismatch has an increasing impact on digital circuits. The matching properties of MOSFETs are studied at several levels of abstraction:
A simple and physics-based model is presented that accurately describes the mismatch in the drain current. The model is illustrated by dimensioning the unit current cell of a current-steering D/A converter.
The most commonly used methods to extract the matching properties of a technology are bench-marked with respect to model accuracy, measurement accuracy and speed, and physical contents of the extracted parameters.
The physical origins of microscopic fluctuations and how they affect MOSFET operation are investigated. This leads to a refinement of the generally applied 1/area law. In addition, the analysis of simple transistor models highlights the physical mechanisms that dominate the fluctuations in the drain current and transconductance.
The impact of process parameters on the matching properties is discussed.
The impact of gate line-edge roughness is investigated, which is considered to be one of the roadblocks to the further down-scaling of the MOS transistor.
Matching Properties of Deep Sub-Micron MOS Transistors is aimed at device physicists, characterization engineers, technology designers, circuit designers, or anybody else interested in the stochastic properties of the MOSFET.
The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the world's greatest museum of art and design, with a vast collection that been an unparalleled resource for designers for 150 years.
This new series of pattern books presents the range of the V&A's superb collections. Beautifully designed, accessible, and informative, these little books are a repository of ideas and inspiration for designers of all kinds. Included in each volume is a CD of all the images shown within - to be redrawn, reworked, or even licensed for further use.
The books are available individually or in a beautiful decorative slipcase. The Fifties The Fifties produced some of the most inventive and innovative twentieth-century pattern designs as the emerging trend for abstraction in the fine arts - as exemplified by Miro, Calder, and Klee, for instance - acted as a stimulus for many European and American designers.
From designer silk squares to chunky homemade knits, this guide is filled with inspired ways to style your scarves. Inside you'll find:
This major handbook covers the structural use of brick and blockwork. A major feature is a series of step-by-step design examples of typical elements and buildings.
"A highly significant work that deserves the attention of urbanists, planners, sociologists of aging, and historians of post-1945 America."--Jon C. Teaford, author ofThe American Suburb
"A clear, concise historical perspective of the development of age-restricted, active adult communities and the developers who led the way. It provides the missing piece to the puzzle in housing studies for older adults."--Helen C. Dillon, University of Indianapolis
Youngtown, Arizona, opened in 1954 and was the first development community to have a minimum age requirement (then 65) and to ban underage children as permanent residents. Developer Del Webb unveiled Sun City six years later. Adjacent to Youngtown, it offered modest homes abutting a golf course. In the ensuing decades, active adult communities have proliferated, including Harold Schwartz's "The Villages" in central Florida, today the nation's single largest retirement community.
For nearly sixty years, the success of these and similar communities have changed the image of retirees from frail, impoverished old people to energetic, well-off adults enjoying a resort-like lifestyle. While some experts predicted these communities would fail or undermine the obligations between generations, they are now firmly embedded as one possible extension of the American dream.
Judith Ann Trolander has written the first book-length history of the "active adult" lifestyle. Examining the origins, development, failures, and challenges facing these communities as the baby boomer population continues to age, she offers a truly original defense of a sometimes controversial aspect of American life.
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