Matching Properties of Deep Sub-Micron MOS Transistors examines this interesting phenomenon. Microscopic fluctuations cause stochastic parameter fluctuations that affect the accuracy of the MOSFET. For analog circuits this determines the trade-off between speed, power, accuracy and yield. Furthermore, due to the down-scaling of device dimensions, transistor mismatch has an increasing impact on digital circuits. The matching properties of MOSFETs are studied at several levels of abstraction:
A simple and physics-based model is presented that accurately describes the mismatch in the drain current. The model is illustrated by dimensioning the unit current cell of a current-steering D/A converter.
The most commonly used methods to extract the matching properties of a technology are bench-marked with respect to model accuracy, measurement accuracy and speed, and physical contents of the extracted parameters.
The physical origins of microscopic fluctuations and how they affect MOSFET operation are investigated. This leads to a refinement of the generally applied 1/area law. In addition, the analysis of simple transistor models highlights the physical mechanisms that dominate the fluctuations in the drain current and transconductance.
The impact of process parameters on the matching properties is discussed.
The impact of gate line-edge roughness is investigated, which is considered to be one of the roadblocks to the further down-scaling of the MOS transistor.
Matching Properties of Deep Sub-Micron MOS Transistors is aimed at device physicists, characterization engineers, technology designers, circuit designers, or anybody else interested in the stochastic properties of the MOSFET.
The unprecedented growth of cities and towns around the world, coupled with the unknown effects of global change, has created an urgent need to increase ecological understanding of human settlements, in order to develop inhabitable, sustainable cities and towns in the future. Although there is a wealth of knowledge regarding the understanding of human organisation and behaviour, there is comparably little information available regarding the ecology of cities and towns. This book brings together leading scientists, landscape designers and planners from developed and developing countries around the world, to explore how urban ecological research has been undertaken to date, what has been learnt, where there are gaps in knowledge, and what the future challenges and opportunities are.
The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the world's greatest museum of art and design, with a vast collection that been an unparalleled resource for designers for 150 years.
This new series of pattern books presents the range of the V&A's superb collections. Beautifully designed, accessible, and informative, these little books are a repository of ideas and inspiration for designers of all kinds. Included in each volume is a CD of all the images shown within - to be redrawn, reworked, or even licensed for further use.
The books are available individually or in a beautiful decorative slipcase. The Fifties The Fifties produced some of the most inventive and innovative twentieth-century pattern designs as the emerging trend for abstraction in the fine arts - as exemplified by Miro, Calder, and Klee, for instance - acted as a stimulus for many European and American designers.
Create low power, higher performance circuits with shorter design times using this practical guide to asynchronous design. This practical alternative to conventional synchronous design enables performance close to full-custom designs with design times that approach commercially available ASIC standard cell flows. It includes design trade-offs, specific design examples, and end-of-chapter exercises. Emphasis throughout is placed on practical techniques and real-world applications, making this ideal for circuit design students interested in alternative design styles and system-on-chip circuits, as well as circuit designers in industry who need new solutions to old problems.
Cities continue to be key sites for the production and contestation of inequalities generated by an ongoing but troubled neoliberal project. Neoliberalism's onslaught across the globe now shapes diverse inequalities -- poverty, segregation, racism, social exclusion, homelessness -- as city inhabitants feel the brunt of privatization, state re-organization, and punishing social policy. This book examines the relationship between persistent neoliberalism and the production and contestation of inequalities in cities across the world. Case studies of current city realities reveal a richly place-specific and generalizable neoliberal condition that further deepens the economic, social, and political relations that give rise to diverse inequalities. Diverse cases also show how people struggle against a neoliberal ethos and hence the open-endedness of futures in these cities.
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