Fluffy is a sleek and lovely kitty. Her claws are manicured and her home is spotless.
Matching Properties of Deep Sub-Micron MOS Transistors examines this interesting phenomenon. Microscopic fluctuations cause stochastic parameter fluctuations that affect the accuracy of the MOSFET. For analog circuits this determines the trade-off between speed, power, accuracy and yield. Furthermore, due to the down-scaling of device dimensions, transistor mismatch has an increasing impact on digital circuits. The matching properties of MOSFETs are studied at several levels of abstraction:
A simple and physics-based model is presented that accurately describes the mismatch in the drain current. The model is illustrated by dimensioning the unit current cell of a current-steering D/A converter.
The most commonly used methods to extract the matching properties of a technology are bench-marked with respect to model accuracy, measurement accuracy and speed, and physical contents of the extracted parameters.
The physical origins of microscopic fluctuations and how they affect MOSFET operation are investigated. This leads to a refinement of the generally applied 1/area law. In addition, the analysis of simple transistor models highlights the physical mechanisms that dominate the fluctuations in the drain current and transconductance.
The impact of process parameters on the matching properties is discussed.
The impact of gate line-edge roughness is investigated, which is considered to be one of the roadblocks to the further down-scaling of the MOS transistor.
Matching Properties of Deep Sub-Micron MOS Transistors is aimed at device physicists, characterization engineers, technology designers, circuit designers, or anybody else interested in the stochastic properties of the MOSFET.
The unprecedented growth of cities and towns around the world, coupled with the unknown effects of global change, has created an urgent need to increase ecological understanding of human settlements, in order to develop inhabitable, sustainable cities and towns in the future. Although there is a wealth of knowledge regarding the understanding of human organisation and behaviour, there is comparably little information available regarding the ecology of cities and towns. This book brings together leading scientists, landscape designers and planners from developed and developing countries around the world, to explore how urban ecological research has been undertaken to date, what has been learnt, where there are gaps in knowledge, and what the future challenges and opportunities are.
The first printing is available as a series of "Designer Editions". Each edition will be bound in a fabric from one of six designers in the book and comes in a plexiglass box. The time-honored "Paisley" was Veronica Etro's pick for the "Etro Edition", limited to just 2,000 copies. From Azzedine Alaia, Cristobal Balenciaga, and Coco Chanel, to Alexander McQueen, Yves Saint Laurent, and Vivienne Westwood, the greatest fashion designers of the 20th and 21st centuries are featured in the permanent collection of The Museum at the Fashion Institute of Technology. The curators of America's premier fashion museum have selected 500 masterpieces of the art of fashion, providing a visual guide to the history of fashion. Known for its innovative and award-winning exhibitions and its outstanding permanent collection of more than 50,000 garments and accessories, The Museum at FIT in New York City is one of only a handful of museums in the world devoted to the art of fashion. The Museum has built its collection around aesthetically and historically significant "directional" fashion-the kind of clothing and accessories that move fashion forward. The designers are organized from A-Z: Adrian, Balenciaga, Chanel, Dior...through Xuly Bet, Yamamoto, and Zoran. Photographs of selected garments from the Museum's permanent collection illuminate each of the featured designers, while curatorial texts explain why each designer is important in fashion history and what is special about the individual pieces featured. In addition to showcasing 100 of the most important designers of the last century with essays by the curators at FIT and a foreword by Suzy Menkes, this book also explores how a fashion museum goes about collecting and exhibiting fashion. In her introductory essay, director and chief curator Valerie Steele writes about the rise of the fashion museum, and the emergence of the fashion exhibition as a popular and controversial phenomenon. "Paisley": it's practically synonymous with the Etro name, and the five "Paisley" motifs selected by Veronica Etro for this edition are no exception. For decades the company has explored and reinterpreted the classic droplet-shaped vegetable decoration, rich in history and meanings, through experimentation and technology, drawing from the past into the present with timeless international style. Six designers - Akris, Etro, Stella McCartney, Missoni, Prada, and Diane von Furstenberg - have contributed fabrics - bold, iconic, revolutionary - to cover 1,000 to 2,000 books each, for a total first printing of 11,000 copies. Crafted by hand at a bindery in the heart of Italy, and stamped with a unique number, every copy is an instant classic, and an addition to your fashion library that is truly one-of-a-kind.
In the last few decades, urban quality of life has received increasing interest from policy makers who aim to make cities better places to live. In addition to the aim of improving quality of life, sustainable and equitable development is also often included in the policy agendas of decision makers.
This book aims to link quality of life to related issues such as sustainability, equity, and subjective well-being. While less than one-third of the world's population lived in cities in 1950, about two thirds of humanity is expected to live in urban areas by 2030. This dramatic increase in the number of people living in urban areas serves as the backdrop for this book's analysis of cities.
This book will be useful to students and researchers in economics, architecture and urban planning, sociology and political sciences, as well as policy makers.
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